Today, the use of monitoring systems is widespread in society. However, it is not common to see them in animals.
This end-of-grade work aims to design and implement a wearable system for cows, horses, sheep and goats. Thus, the farmer can know the state of the animals and their location. Taking into account the signs and characteristics that occur in this type of animals in situations of interest, the system has several sensors: a microphone, a temperature and humidity sensor, a gyroscope, an accelerometer, an air quality sensor, a gas sensor to detect diseases and a GPS.
Thanks to the information of these sensors it is possible to know when the animal is sick, has problems walking or even the period of heat of the females and later the time of delivery.
Finally, all data is sent to the farmer to make decisions on the farm, improving the welfare of the animal and increasing its productivity.
For the development of the system, the complete hardware design and implementation was carried out, in addition to the realization of a hardware abstraction layer (HAL) for all sensors.
This final project focuses on the field of robotics aimed at developing automated prostheses, helping to recover part of the lost mobility of people who need it. More specifically, it will focus on analysing and designing a wirelessly controlled robotic arm, which will serve as the basis for future projects at the B105 Electronic Systems Lab.
To this end, a preliminary study was carried out of the technologies currently used to develop a robotic arm, extracting which components can be used to carry out the movement and control of the arm, what considerations must be taken into account to design the different parts that make it up and what prototypes currently exist, extracting their characteristics to try to find a way to improve them.
Once the previous study had been done, the design of the arm was carried out, where the way to control it, the type of wireless communication, the motorization to be used and how it is fed were chosen. After this, we have chosen the components that best suit to meet the specifications requested, the modeling program has been used to design the parts, the materials used to build them, and the type of manufacture used to make them. It has been concluded that the parts must be manufactured by 3D printing, that Bluetooth will be used as technology for wireless communication, and servomotors to motorize the system.
Afterwards, the connection has been made, the design of the pieces by means of a 3D modeling program and the subsequent manufacture of part of them by means of 3D printing. A mobile application has also been developed to control several servomotors and check the wireless connection between the arm and the mobile, in addition to having created several integration files on the board to check the operation of the components.
Then different tests have been carried out, using the software created, where different components have been connected, and it has been checked whether they work correctly or not.
In the end a complete functionality has not been achieved, but a partial functionality has been achieved where it has been possible to connect by means of Bluetooth the mobile and the arm, to move two servomotors, with which two fingers have been moved, and the battery has been controlled by means of a series of leds. Several problems have also been found with regard to the power supply of the servomotors and the reception of data sent by the board that controls the servomotors to the mobile.
Nowadays, several European cities are looking for ways to regulate their internal traffic due to the high concentration rates of pollutants present because of vehicles. These concentrations cause hundreds of thousands of premature deaths in Europe per year, so it is beginning to be considered as a risk factor for its citizens. In most of the cities that implement some type of restriction, the regulation of this traffic is carried out by establishing a fixed low emission zone controlled by cameras.
In this context, the aim of this work is to provide an alternative to the conditions for access to these restricted zones, which are generally based on the Euro standard met by each vehicle. Thus, a device has been developed that connects to the vehicles by means of the OBD II standard, obtains its geolocation and transmits the acquired data using the NB-IoT technology. The purpose of these data is to obtain an estimate of the emissions produced by vehicles individually and based on actual traffic data, with which to regulate the access to the restricted zone. To this end, the COPERT emissions estimator has been incorporated based on speed data with a half-second time interval. This provides an opportunity to create fairer driving conditions based on the particular emissions of each vehicle within the restricted zones. In addition, it allows the creation of dynamic zones that can be a palliative for the border effect that could occur with a fixed zone. With this change of perspective, we can restrict more or less the traffic depending on the pollution situation in the city. Another improvement is the regulation of other pollutants like carbon monoxide or methane.
The developed system is powered by the vehicle battery, uses OBD II through the CAN bus or the ISO 9141 to communicate with the vehicle and obtains the location using a multi-constellation. A PCB has been designed that integrates three modules that carry out the tasks of communicating with the vehicle, transmitting the data to a central server and establishing of the geolocation of the vehicle; as well as a microcontroller in charge of the coordination between these elements and communicating with the user through commands.
A vehicle ECU simulator has been developed in order to debug the system and check that the data obtained are related to the expected values without the need to be permanently connected to a real vehicle during development. The objective was to create a simple simulator that would implement CAN bus communication and could respond to requests from an OBD II port.
Several tests have been carried out with the developed system on board a vehicle during a real journey. Their results allow us to see a distribution consistent with what was expected in terms of the concentration of pollutants emitted. Thus, we have empirically proven that the concentration of pollutants increases on narrow and slow roads and decreases on wider roads. From these tests the correct functioning of the final system and, therefore, the fulfilment of the objectives are confirmed. The result of a test made with a Euro 6 diesel car can be seen in the following picture, where we can see the NOx estimated emissions.
Obtaining information about the motion of an object has many applications in today’s society. Large industries such as cinema or videogames use motion capture technologies for their development. Motion capture systems collect the information that allows to know the acceleration, speed, orientation and position of an object.
The development of MicroElectroMechanical Systems or MEMS by the end of the 1980s has increased the use of accelerometers and gyroscopes to increase motion capture. That led to the development of Inertial Measurement Units with a small size, resulting from the combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. This miniaturisation enabled the use in other applications, like augmented reality, 3D animation, navigation, video games and sports . Another of its features that stands out is that it does not need an external reference to be used, resulting in a simpler implementation.
In this graduate thesis, a system has been developed that can collect the data generated by an IMU, store it and then dump it into another system for analysis. Some criteria were needed to be established, so the design is focused on been small and low power consumption. For the development of the system, a hardware design was made, followed by the implementation of the software. Finally, some test were made to evaluate the final result.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) research has recently become a key element in the Internet of Things (IoT) concept. These networks use autonomous devices, also known as nodes, whose purpose is to gather information from the environment and transmit it on the internet. We may classify these nodes into two categories: sensor nodes, which extract information from diverse environment parameters; and gateway nodes that transmit this information outside the network.
The main goal of this thesis is the
development of a gateway node based in fourth generation mobile communications
(4G). This gateway node has been developed both at hardware and software level
and should be integrated in a wireless sensor network at future stages.
The hardware for this project is based in a
previous design of a modular PCB developed at the B105 Electronic Systems Lab.
Some modifications have been introduced in the original design in the power
supply, RF and voltage shifter blocks in order to complete a functional
prototype. The software architecture has been completely designed and
implemented from the very beginning based on YetiOS – an embedded OS developed
at the B105 Lab – including a specific API for the module and diverse
connectivity functionalities such as call features and TCP/IP communication
Each hardware and software module has been
tested separately and also operation of the whole node. In addition, system
performance was evaluated measuring three parameters: consumption, latency and
throughput, which are critical in the deployment of a practical application for
The obtained results are discussed at the
end of the document, comparing them to the original objectives and finally some
working lines are proposed to continue with the node development.
Road safety is one of the objectives of the European Union due to the high number of infractions committed every year by drivers and pedestrians, and the large amount of accidents with fatalities registered in Europe year by year. Therefore, any step taken in order to deal with this problem is beneficial for everyone.
Current technology allows increasing the security measures of vehicles, which, together with consciousness-raising of drivers and pedestrians, take us one step closer to the reduction of these figures. Every day more people decide to use biosensors for controlling their vital signs. The transfer and adaptation of the aforementioned systems to the situation in which a driver is, permit to complement both legal actions accomplished and consciousness-raising measures, improving road safety.
The main objective of this Master’s thesis consists of the development of an electronic system that allows drivers to notice the indisposition to drive, permitting to avoid an accident and also an infraction.
After analyzing the parameters that affect driving and are related to the driver, those that can be monitored in a non-intrusive way and without using disposable material were chosen: body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, stress level, and alcohol level.
All of that has been gathered in a single module formed by three PCBs. Both hardware and software have been designed. The proposal has been assembled and the case and the band have been 3D-printed in order to form the final device with a smart bracelet form factor. This module has been designed with the purpose of having small dimensions and low consumption since it is powered by a battery.
Finally, several tests have been carried out to verify the proper functioning of the system. The biggest challenge was found while obtaining blood pressure based on the photoplethysmography signal. Through those tests, the developed software could be adapted according to the results obtained, since offset values that have to be applied and the times that sensors need could be known. This also permitted to discover errors committed during previous stages of the development process.
Therefore, it can be confirmed that the general objectives set have been accomplished.
Technical viability of the proposal could be proved, and this informs of the existence of several application fields that the project could have, as is the case of professional drivers.
The objective of
this Master Thesis is the design, implementation and validation of a wireless
node network that will have as target the energy management in home automation
environments. This system will be capable of sending the collected data to a
server and will also be able to control certain nodes from others. Furthermore,
it will operate autonomously, not needing any user intervention to connect a
new node to the network or for sending data to the server.
To achieve that,
first, existing solutions have been analyzed and three nodes have been built,
having each one of them a different functionality. For their construction, both
their hardware electrical design and implementation, and their software implementation
have been developed. Their stability has also been tested with several
communications and functionality tests.
After the initial
tests, several aspects of the nodes where found to be improvable, so the boards
were revised and build again, one of each functionality, with the detected
errors corrected. Along with theses ones, three additional copies (nine in
total) were built with a different communications submodule, substituting the
original RF chip and its support components.
battery-operated nodes, current consumption was measured, and a battery
duration was estimated. Also, all these nodes were put under test as part of
one common network, where the coverage of the nodes and system stability were
checked, among others.
At the end of this
document, some conclusions of the obtained results are discussed, and the
original objectives of the thesis were checked to see if they have been
This group of
nodes will be left installed in the laboratory B105 permanently, allowing the
increase in the number of nodes and functionality in future work or as a base
for future tests.
At the present time a massive amount of data is being generated by many kinds of devices such as wearables, mobile phones, temperature or humidity sensors and many others. Data could be treated and represented in order to understand and analyse the information the carry within it. The aim of this project is to carry out the software development needed to bring new utilities to the data management and representation platform deployed in the B105 Electronic Systems Lab. Data used by the platform is generated on an IoT environment by different type of sensors. There are many tools developed by third parties in charge of data management and representation, but this project pretends to extend the system developed in the B105 Electronic Systems Lab based on an own web service.
With the development of the IoT, the number of devices of different nature and size
that are distributed throughout the environment has increased enormously, generating data
continuously. These data can often be processed where we generate them. However
sometimes we can not have enough computing power to do it or we want to access them
remotely to see the correct functioning of a system or for example to store them in a
With this background it makes necessary to develop an electronic system that can be
conected in an easy way to the place where we are generating the information and transport it
to our central node. For our particular case, we aspire to establish a real time stream in order
to represent the data in a graphic, in order to give to the user a proper view of the
performance of his sensor node.
We have developed a WIFI gateway that allows this automation that we have
explained. We have used the Zentri AMW 106, an ultralow consumption WIFI module who fits
perfect in our requirements. We can attach via serial (using UART) to our electronic system to
the module where we generate the data and creating a TCP-IP client send to our server
We have also made an effort in develop an user friendly application in the server side.
This application has the ability of representing the data we are sending in real time and at the
same time to store in a file having a register. This register can be accessed to consult the
values obtained in a certain time.
Building or remodelling large underground areas, such as tunnels, are very complex
projects where there are some very specific needs and dangers.
Historically it has been considered that tunnels were dangerous places and therefore it
was inevitable that fatal accidents took place during construction works. In fact, there
have been many casualties in tunnels under construction. However, nowadays, tunnel
safety is an essential aspect all over the European countries and particularly, in Spain.
Also, it is equally important the construction work management during construction
phase: effective management of resources (workers, raw materials, tools, etc.) within
the tunnel and the machinery involved, with the ultimate goal to improve the
effectiveness and efficiency of the construction site. Most of the mentioned resources
are moved by trains, due to their great ability to transport huge amount of materials
using less time/effort.
Many of the measures taken in tunnels, and particularly on trains dedicated to this kind of works, are done manually and with the constant intervention of operators and maintenance personnel which may, in some cases, lead to errors, planning delays and as a result, to increase the final cost of the work. In the case of traffic control and railway equipment inside tunnels, mechanisms for monitoring and management are scarce and usually insufficient for proper operation; these environmental, structural and traffic control mechanisms, become critical during indoors construction work.
Therefore it is necessary the development of a system able to: firstly, immediately detect any problem in the train or in the tunnel infrastructure, react quickly and mitigate effectively the possible consequences; and secondly, able to manage train traffic, detecting at all times the position of each train or other machinery(such as trucks) accurately and safely. The system shall manage and act effectively and quickly with all those measures, parameters and location coordinates.
The first objective of this project was to provide key solutions for wireless seamless connectivity and interoperability in rail tunnel infrastructures by considering everyday physical environments of trains which will significantly contribute to decrease incidents and accidents at work, as well as to the optimization of the works of the rail machinery in terms of time, project costs and operation and maintenance of the equipment and facilities.
As a result of the project, it was implemented a prototype capable of managing freight trains at construction work sites, able to prevent disasters and accidents at building (or refurbishment) stage in large underground areas such as tunnels.
The solution designed and developed is able to reduce the effort and time required for integrating WSN solutions and services into tunnel works, railway safety-related and multipurpose systems, and to reduce maintenance costs of on-board WSN services by providing a single general integration indoor platform for wireless sensors and wireless communication services, with centralized and standard interfaces for existing systems.