TFM: Design of a node for control and power consumption measurement of domestic electrical equipment

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by Alvaro Sanchez

The research project Sonrisas developed by B105 Electronic Systems Lab of ETSIT-UPM and the company BQ has as its general objective the development of an innovative system for the implementation of services in the field of IoT.

In this context has been carried out the development of one of the nodes of the project network. This node consists of a plug for remote connection and disconnection that also allows the measurement of the power consumed by the equipment connected to the plug.

The prototype implemented includes voltage and current sensors whose data are read and processed by a microcontroller that performs the estimation of the consumption of different loads by means of a window reading algorithm. The estimated consumption is sent to a user interface. The remote activation and deactivation of the plug is controlled by a command from the implemented interface.

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The implemented test bench has allowed the validation of the switching and measurement functions with a deviation of less than 1% with respect to the real load values.

The project has been carried out following low cost, low consumption and reduced dimensions’ design metrics, pursuing the future commercialization of the system.

Design strategies for detecting action potentials in actions based on movements

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This work is located in the studies of the brain and their signals. The puspose is to know when someone wants to make a movement. Thus, it might help to people that actually are not able to move a member of their body or more. Mainly, it is focused in the design of strategies for detection of action potentials or spikes when a movement wants to be made. This study is not looking for action potentials form, it is looking for patterns and characteristics that allow to recognize the movement. Although there are action potentials covered by the signals taken from the electrodes, but they are unavailable.

To accomplish the objective, it is used the EEG signals of a public data base. It is selected the ones related to the movement of the hands, concretely, the movement of open and close the fist. Signal sources of noise that dirty the signal are analyzed, they are called artifacts, and then, filtering stage comes, giving the signals of below for movement and no movement.

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Now, possible algorithms are checked. It is decided to use the Wavelet transform and the way in which it obtains the energy of the signal. Thanks to the calculation of Wavelet energy in 22 subjects, it is reached to the conclusion that Wavelet energy for movement is higher than for no movement. So, electrodes that comply with this condition at 100% are 4.

The final algorithm is implemented three features: correlation, a parameter that gives a relation between two signals, their energy range and their energy average. It could be said that algorithm has two parts: a training stage and a decision stage. Inside decision part, there are three algorithms: ProMove, ProMove + improve and Logic. The basic difference among ProMove and Logic is an or (||) and an and (&). The improve is based on empiric knowledge.

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Final conclusions show that the signals between subjects are very changing. Therefore, same algorithm is not useful for everybody. To some subjects, the successful probability is very high (92,86% – 1 fail), while for others is more low than what is expected (50% – 7 fail). With these test, the importance in the length of the signals is reflected, because if signals for subjects with more than 3 fails are inversely processed, the fails are reduced. The most useful algorithm for a larger number of subjects is ProMove + improve.

TFG: Design and implementation of modules for a low cost radar system.

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In the last years many low-cost radar modules have appeared on the market, allowing the implementation of this technology in a large number of applications, such as medical applications or people detection.

The B105 Electronic Systems Lab developed a prototype for the control, management and processing of the signals generated by these transceiver radars. The aim of the project is increasing the system versatility while correcting the problems it presented. So, the first step consisted on analysing the existing system and evaluating the aspects in which it could be improved.
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Then, the focus shifted to the design of several circuits that allowed to digitally change the amplification and filtering of the analog signals of the radar module. The circuit that modulates the radar transceiver was also modified to make it configurable. Once the designs were made a printed circuit board (PCB) was developed and manufactured.

An update of the existing software was needed since the hardware modules have been modified. Functions that handle the different amplification and filtering configurations of the system were developed. Also, a communication that would allow sending orders from a computer to the module was added. This communication allows the modification of the parameters during the operation of the system. The parameters include the amplification, the filtering characteristics, as well as the modulation parameters of the radar transceiver.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR DEFORMATIONS ON MATERIALS

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Currently there are various systems to measure deformations such as optical systems of video or laser as well as direct contact systems,  which can be classified in mechanical and electrical systems. The strain gauges belong to this last group. These gauges are devices that resemble a rectangular sheet whose dimensions typically span just a few centimeters length. In its interior there is a conductive or semiconducting wire with the form of a grid which has the ability to vary its electrical resistance when it is deformed. Compared to other technologies, strain gauges offer a much more affordable price and its use is very simple. Given their increasing perfection, they can offer benefits similar to other technologies and that is why the interest they receive has been increasing considerably, giving rise to a wide gauge market with a great variety of features and prices.

This work was born with the goal of developing a system that measures deformations based on its use for different materials with certain levels of precision, accuracy and reliability, as well as designing it as generic as possible to allow the use of any gauge that is offered in the market.

The design of the system consists of a Discovery board that tries to sample the signal coming from the gauges for its later transformation and processing. The data are sended and displayed on the computer screen through a program that reads the USB port.

The study covers different measurement techniques based on the use of different configurations that connect the gauges to the Discovery board for a comparison of results and effectiveness with each method. It also seeks to analyze the performance of different types of strain gauges with different characteristics.

TFG: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A DEMONSTRATOR SYSTEM FOR COGNITIVE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a kind of network that contains nodes communicating wireless. It has sensors that allow to obtain information directly from the environment in order to learn or act on it.

Since the use of this wireless networks is growing, it appears the need of creating cognitive networks which are able to learn from the environment and adapt themselves efficiently.

The B105 Electronic Systems Lab research group developed a test-bench containing some nodes called ‘cognitive New Generation Device (cNGD)’. Currently, each of them is programmed by connecting it physically to a computer. However, this situation produces a lot of problems, like the required time to perform the node programming or the necessity of reprogramming a node that is out of reach. This is the main reason why a wireless programming method becomes very handy.

The aim of this project is to improve the already available Bootloader getting a better reception and to manage the available random access memory. For this purpose, a Wake On Radio (WOR) board was used to wake up a specific cNGD node and then work on this node independently. However, some modifications were required due to hardware and software limitations. Even though the node has three transceivers on ISM (Industrial, scientist and medical) free bands, it was used the 434 MHz band for the WOR and the 2.45GHz band for the Bootloader due to its speed.

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In addition, an graphical interface was implemented for the test-bench in order to see the status of the cNGD nodes, the code transmission and the connection processes. It also has another tab for the choice of the cNGD nodes to wake up and reprogram. This interface is a web application with the server side implemented with the Python programming language, so we can reach it only with an internet connection.

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Finally, some tests were run to verify the expected behavior of the test-bench. These test are documented at the end of the memoir.

Puesto de mando inalámbrico en el nivel Brigada diseñado utilizando metodologías “Human-Centered Design”

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El pasado jueves 23 de Noviembre el GB Conde de Arjona y Octavio Nieto-Taladriz presentamos la ponencia “Puesto de mando inalámbrico en el nivel Brigada diseñado utilizando metodologías “Human-Centered Design” en el V Congreso Nacional de I+D en Defensa y Seguridad que tuvo lugar en la Academia de Infantería de Toledo.

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RESUMEN

El Puesto de Mando de una Brigada (PCBRI) puede tener entre 20 y 30 puestos de trabajo. Cada uno de los cuales consta de un ordenador terminal de Sistema de Información para el Mando y Control del Ejército de Tierra (SIMACET) y un terminal de telefonía. Esto supone, en función del LAY-OUT de PCBRI, entre 3 y 5 kms de cable de señal.

Cada vez que se mueve el PCBRI hay que recoger y volver a tender todo ese material. Más allá del trabajo que esto supone y del personal y material necesario para hacerlo posible, el verdadero problema reside en el tiempo de retardo que se genera para continuar con el Mando y Control de las operaciones, así como la fiabilidad de las conexiones.

En la búsqueda de soluciones para esta situación se consideró adecuado aplicar la metodología “Human-Centered Design” a este escenario. Para ello la Brigada Guadarrama XII formó un equipo de trabajo asociándose con el grupo de investigación “B105 Electronic Systems Lab” (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), el Colegio Universitario de la Defensa (Zaragoza), Teldat y la Escuela Politécnica Superior del Ejército de Tierra. Dicho grupo de trabajo ha desarrollado un prototipo que posibilita el trabajo sin cables en el interior del PCBRI.

El resultado de este proyecto aporta una valiosísima experiencia en el uso de estas metodologías que ya se vienen aplicando exitosamente en otros ejércitos de nuestro entorno, y además ha generado un interesante prototipo diseñado sobre las siguientes ideas:

  • Sistema fantasma inalámbrico de voz sobre IP (VoIP) con centralita inteligente montado sobre la estación NAVARRA.
  • Sistema fantasma inalámbrico montado sobre la red SIMACET.
  • Escudo electromagnético que cubre el PCBRI tanto para ataques como escuchas.
  • Está en estudio un sistema de alertadores y localizadores de fuentes frente a ataques electromagnéticos.

PRESENTACION

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Obtención de indicadores de fatiga mediante el electroencefalograma.

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Desde el proyecto Simbiosys, buscamos nuevas formas de detección de fatiga. Puesto que el sistema está destinado a ser usado en un simulador para conductores de vehículos, se busca que sea lo menos intrusivo posible, para facilitar el movimiento y comodidad del conductor.

Con este fin se está desarrollando un sistema multisensor con una parte importante de investigación como es la detección de distintos estados de fatiga mediante la actividad cerebral del conductor.

Para la obtención del electroencefalograma (EEG) se eligió un casco con un único electrodo, ya que los EEG convencionales presentan más de veinte electrodos, lo cual sería muy intrusivo para el conductor.

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Tras la obtención de la señal en bruto del cerebro, el sistema se basa en la detección de la cantidad de energía que existe en las diferentes bandas del cerebro. En este caso las bandas de interés serán la banda alpha, betha y tetha, todas ellas relacionadas con estados de cansancio, fatiga o sueño.

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El sistema consta de dos partes diferenciadas, basadas en machine learning. En la primera parte se obtiene las características – la energía de cada banda- del sujeto en estado de consciencia (no fatigado) para formar dos clústeres.
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El objetivo es generar dos esferas que engloben todas las características en este estado, de tal forma que, si en la segunda parte del algoritmo se obtiene alguna característica que no pertenece a los clústeres, se considera una anomalía. Será la acumulación de anomalías durante un periodo de tiempo la que nos indique la presencia de fatiga en el sujeto.

 

Development of a network of devices connected through the LIN (Local Interconnect network) bus.

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The communication among a high number of electronic devices creates several troubles. The most common being: latency, data errors and high development cost. This lead to the creation of device networks, which objective is to link many devices using as few conductors as possible. This new network should fulfill some requirements such as; efficiency, low cost, and robustness. The need of satisfying such requirements gave place to the construction of the bus of communication. Generally, the automotive industry uses CAN (Controller Area Network), LIN (Local Interconnected network) and FlexRay buses to connect their devices. Each of them are used for a specific application inside of the automobile. The efficient performance of this buses has allowed different industries to incorporate them to their systems. Nowadays CAN and LIN are used in domotic systems, medical equipment, automatization factories, navy electronic, industrial machines control, among others. Moreover, many projects are development in the B105 Electronic Systems Lab where it is necessary to link different actuators and sensors because of this, it has been decided to implement a LIN network.

The Project was composed of a master node and two slaves nodes that interact with each other. The discovery kit STM32F411E DISCO was used to implement the master and the slave node. Finally, the other devices the discovery kit STM32F411E DISCO possess like the diodes led (actuators) and the accelerometers (sensors) were used for the working demonstration.

TFG: High mobility Brigadier General (OF-6) wireless Command and Control Center design applying “Human-Centered Design” methodologies

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A high mobility Command and Control Center a the Brigadier General (OF-6) level (PCBRI) contains from twenty to thirty operator workstations. Each workstation consists on a computer connected to SIMACET (Command and Control Spanish Army digital network) and a telephony terminal. According to the PCBRI layout it supposes between three and five kilometers of signal wire.

Each time the PCBRI moves from one location to another one means removing and recabling several kilometers of wire and about three hundred wire connections. On the other hand beyond the work, personnel and material the main problem is the unavailability of the Command and Control Center between jumps and the connections reliability.

The development of a new wireless Command and Control Center was considered as a good challenge for applying “Human-Centerd Design” methodologies and the “Brigada Guadarrama XII” created a working group acting as final user, the Research Group “B105 Electronic Systems Lab” (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) as technological and methodological partner, the Colegio Universitario de la Defensa (Zaragoza) both as technological and educational partner, the company Teldat and the Escuela Politécnica Superior del Ejército de Tierra as observer for, applying this methodology, develop a prototype to work inside of the PCBRI without wires.

The results of this project, apart of the experience of applying Human-Centered Design and SCRUM methodologies within the Spanish Army, is the development of a prototype of a high mobility Command and Control Center that copes with the demands of the Brigade where time and effort have been fully controlled. Main features are:

  • Phantom Digital system over the SIMACET network (The developed system is transparent to the legacy network)
  • VoIP phantom system supported by an smart switchboard allowing intelligent routing and voice recording running over a legacy NAVARRA station
  • Electromagnetic shielding with several choices in the binomial cost-attenuation according the mission requirements

TFG: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INDOOR POSITIONING SYSTEM TO LOCATE PEOPLE THROUGH A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

Project architecture

A Wireless Sensor Network or WSN is a set of stand-alone devices that communicate with each other wirelessly. These networks consist of devices with low resources and wireless connectivity and are able to monitor different parameters.

Wireless sensor networks are intended for a multitude of environments, whether at an environmental (temperature, humidity), industrial or private (home automation, remote control) level.

The main objective of this project is to locate by means of a WSN to the members of laboratory. This information will be captured through small wireless devices made during this project. This information will be valuable both to know the availability and presence of the members of the laboratory and to optimize other systems such as lighting, air conditioning or common workstations.

The B105 Electronic Systems Lab has an intelligent environment that monitors different environmental aspects such as temperature, luminosity, humidity, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the hardware and software necessary to detect the position of the members of the laboratory. In this way, each person will carry a device that sends the necessary information to the nodes of the network to position that person. Considerations such as low consumption, communications and data processing will be taken into account. The designed device is shown in the following image.

 The designed device